The strike price may be set by reference to the spot price market price of the underlying security or commodity on the day an option is taken out, activele subiacente ale opțiunilor it may be fixed at a discount or at a premium.
Conform metodei angajamentului, instrumentele financiare derivate trebuie convertite în poziții echivalente pe activul suport. Expunerea este valoarea de piață a activului suport. La cantidad del activo subyacente al contrato también es determinado. Valoarea activului suport pentru fiecare contract este, de asemenea predeterminat. Tales instrumentos derivados se valorarán con prudencia, teniendo en cuenta el activo subyacente, y se incluirán en la valoración de los activos del FPE.
The seller has the corresponding obligation to fulfill the transaction i. An option that conveys to the owner the right to buy at a specific price is referred to as a call ; an option that conveys the right of the owner to activele subiacente ale opțiunilor at a specific price is referred to as a put. The seller may grant an option to a buyer as part of another transaction, such as a share issue or as part of an employee incentive scheme, otherwise, a buyer would pay a premium to the seller for the option.
A call option would normally be exercised only when the strike price is below the market value of the underlying asset, ajută să câștigi bitcoin a put option would normally be exercised only when the strike price is above the market value.
When an option is exercised, the cost to the buyer of the asset acquired is the strike price plus the premium, if any. When the option expiration date passes without the option being exercised, the option expires, and the buyer would forfeit the premium to the seller.
In any case, the premium is income to the seller, and normally a capital loss to the buyer. The owner of an option may on-sell the option to a third party in a secondary marketin either an over-the-counter transaction or on an options exchangedepending on the option.
The market price of an American-style option normally closely follows that of the underlying stock being the difference between the market activele subiacente ale opțiunilor of the stock and the strike price of the option. The actual market price of the option may vary depending on a number of factors, such as a significant option holder may need to sell activele subiacente ale opțiunilor option as the expiry date is approaching and does not have the financial resources to exercise the option, or a buyer in the market is trying to amass a large option holding.
The ownership of an option does not generally entitle the holder to any rights associated with the underlying asset, such as voting rights or any income from the underlying asset, such as a dividend.
History[ edit ] Historical uses of options[ edit ] Contracts similar to options have been used since ancient times.
Ce este un "element de bază"
On a certain occasion, it was predicted that the season's olive harvest would be larger than usual, and during the off-season, he acquired the right to use a number of olive presses the following spring.
When spring came and the olive harvest was larger than expected, he exercised his options and then rented the activele subiacente ale opțiunilor out at a much higher price than he paid for his 'option'.
Their exercise price was fixed at a rounded-off market price on the day or week that the option was bought, and the expiry date was generally activele subiacente ale opțiunilor months after purchase. They were not traded in secondary markets.
REZERVAREA "Active subiacente"
In the real estate market, call options have long been used to assemble large parcels of land from separate owners; e. In the motion picture industry, film or theatrical producers often buy the right — but not the obligation — to dramatize a specific book or script. Lines of credit give the potential borrower the right — but not the obligation — to borrow within a specified time period.
Many choices, or embedded options, have traditionally been included in bond contracts. For example, many bonds are convertible into common stock at the buyer's option, or may be called bought back at specified prices at the issuer's option.
Mortgage borrowers have long had the option to repay the loan early, which corresponds to a callable bond option. Modern stock options[ edit ] Options contracts have been known for decades.
Un instrument derivat este un instrument financiar cu un preț care se bazează pe care derivă din un activ diferit. Activele subiacente reprezintă instrumentul financiar cum ar fi acțiunile, contractele futures, o marfă, o monedă sau un indice pe care se bazează prețul unui derivat. Activul suport pentru contractul de opțiune pe acțiuni este stocul companiei. Un activ suport poate fi utilizat pentru a identifica elementul din cadrul contractului care oferă valoare contractului. Investitorul are opțiunea sau dreptul de a cumpăra activul menționat mai sus la un preț convenit la o anumită dată, cunoscut ca expirare.
The Chicago Board Options Exchange was established inwhich set up a regime using standardized forms and terms and trade through a guaranteed clearing house. Trading activity and academic interest has increased since then.
Today, many options are created in a standardized form and traded through activele subiacente ale opțiunilor houses on regulated options exchangeswhile other over-the-counter options are written as bilateral, customized contracts between a single buyer and seller, one or both of which may be a dealer or market-maker.
Options are part of a larger class of financial instruments known as derivative productsor simply, derivatives. Option contracts may be quite complicated; however, at minimum, they usually contain the following specifications:  whether the option holder has the right to activele subiacente ale opțiunilor a call option or the right to sell a put option the quantity and class of the underlying asset s e.
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B stock the strike pricealso known as the exercise price, which is the price at which the activele subiacente ale opțiunilor transaction will occur upon exercise the expiration date, or expiry, which is the last date the option can be exercised the settlement termsfor instance whether the writer must deliver the actual asset on exercise, or may simply tender the equivalent cash amount the terms by which the option is quoted in the market to convert the quoted price into the actual premium — the total amount paid by the holder to the writer.